Informational and Communication Technologies Used in the Doctors of Philosophy Preparation in the Conditions of Distance Education
The paper is dedicated to issues of distance education of applicants for scientific degrees — graduate students and doctoral students. In particular, the aim of the article is to determine the negative characteristics of distance education in higher education, while learning the information and communication technologies, including the postgraduate education, for formulating a comprehensive view of this format of education. Significant characteristics (peculiarities) of the distance education are outlined by author. They are: individualization of the educational process, indirect interaction of participants, and specialization of the environment. Essential advantages (objective need to optimize individual qualities and learning skills; more comfortable learning conditions than in the classroom; saving personal resources) and disadvantages (destruction of social relations; development of deep introverted qualities of the individual; gradual exclusion of the person from socialization; inability and / or unwillingness of individual tutors to adapt their professional skills to new conditions; inadequate level of technical support of the teaching staff, and in some places — students) of distance education are determined by the researcher on the basis of using of content-analysis of pieces for the content of features, mentioned above. The author's reasoning about the list of advantages and disadvantages of distance education is supported and expanded by the in-depth analysis of empirical sources, including scientific researches within the object of research. The advantages and disadvantages of distance postgraduate education according to the criterion of their nature are classified and three basic groups of advantages and disadvantages of the distance education are suggested. It is concluded that the reverse side of the "medal" in the form of distance education contains negative phenomena and processes of technical-technological, psychological and social-communicative nature. It is emphasized, that the consequences of psychological and social-communicative nature can be irreversible and lead to the complete destruction of an individual and the loss of social relations. It is indicated that the best option for further development of educational processes is the rational use of distance learning technologies as a supplement to traditional education.
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