Updated Tourist Formalities as a Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic Challenges and New Terrorist Threats
In the process of organizing and conducting tourist trips, travel companies and tourists perform a large number of tourist formalities. Failure to comply with at least one formality becomes an obstacle to crossing the border into the destination country, movement around the country and residence of temporary stay, and so on. The issue of their compliance during the pandemic has become particularly acute. Along with the existing tourist formalities, a number of new ones are being formed. The lack of a unified approach to the updated formalities creates significant obstacles to the resumption of Tourism. It is important to emphasize that the new tourist formalities and their analysis have not been reflected in scientific works. The article examines the impact of adding and changing tourist formalities on the development of Tourism and ensuring security, both in the host countries and in the countries of permanent residence of travellers (upon return). Much attention is paid to the peculiarities of the formation of new tourist formalities (medical and sanitary) in the countries that first started receiving Ukrainian tourists, the interdependence of changes in medical and sanitary tourist formalities with changes in the epidemiological situation is studied. Such studies allow us to identify which formalities are effective in stopping the spread of the pandemic, and which are duplicate, ineffective; they open up prospects for forming a unified approach for countries that accept tourists. At the same time, the article reveals the essence of the introduction of the ETIAS system. The article analyses the change in the security situation state, thanks to the implement of this system, and proves the need for further research on the impact of fulfilment of the ETIAS system requirements on stopping terrorist acts. A special stage for the development of domestic and international tourism was the implement of vaccination against COVID-19. There are new documents required for travellers — «vaccination passports». The article examines the impact of vaccination and the implement of an immune passport on the development of tourism during the pandemic and the post-pandemic existence of mankind. The directions, examples of implement, and stages of the process of recognizing immune passports as one of the main driving forces of tourist medical and sanitary formalities of international tourism are highlighted.
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