Humanitarian Access during Armed Conflicts
The article analyses the right to humanitarian access, which finds its expression in humanitarian aid and protection during armed conflicts in accordance with the norms of International Humanitarian Law. The basics of humanitarian access activities are determined. Mechanisms for ensuring and supporting effective humanitarian access as a result of collective action and efforts of humanitarian actors are considered. The article reaffirms that the provision of humanitarian assistance is the responsibility of all parties to an armed conflict in accordance with International Humanitarian Law. International Humanitarian Law is a constant of legal norms that must be applied by all parties to an armed conflict. Determinant in this definition is the presence of armed conflict, not the «humanitarian» component. Authors of the article emphasize that the axiom of International Humanitarian Law is the protection of war victims, which corresponds to the key principle of humanity. Access standards are reflected in the four Geneva Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War of 1949 and the two Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1977. Unless a State or other party to an armed conflict is a party to a treaty, customary International Humanitarian Law operate in parallel with contractual rules. Humanitarian protection is designed to protect and restore human rights, which is based on the provisions of international human rights law and forms the basis of fundamental human rights and freedoms. The provisions of international criminal law, in particular the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are strengthens humanitarian access. The article argues that addressing issues such as the accreditation of humanitarian missions, the humanitarian aid coordination system and overcoming regulatory gaps will address the current challenges of humanitarian access in armed conflict mainly due to the difficulties of interaction of international humanitarian missions with the warring parties. The authors of the article confirmed that the violation of the right to humanitarian access poses a threat to peace and security in the world.
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