Formation of the Migration Policy of the European Union and its Relationship with Security Policy
The problem of international migration, especially illegal migration, is a very politicized problem in most EU member states. Countries such as Italy, France or Spain have a strong interest in reducing the influx of illegal workers into national labor markets. This anti-immigration pressure has a profound effect on the EU’s common migration policy. Immigration has become a real challenge for the countries of the European Union. Some member states, unable to cope with the problem of assimilation and integration of their immigrants, have become hostages of populist slogans in the fight against illegal migration and crime. Under the threat of an increase in the number of migrants in the EU, the question of the impossibility of gradual integration is becoming increasingly apparent. Ukraine has declared its membership in the European Union as its normative goal. In the course of strengthening Ukraine’s cooperation with the EU and Ukraine’s integration into the European community, the stability of migration legislation is necessary. Therefore, based on the experience of the European Union, Ukraine must create and implement its own legal norms and principles of the domestic legal system in accordance with the standards and principles of European law. The aim of the article is to present the evolution of European migration management policy. The article shows that migration has been inextricably linked to security issues since the beginning of European integration. However, such policies do not take into account important demographic challenges for the EU economy, especially the problem of population aging. The historical preconditions of the legal regulation of migration processes in the law of the European Union are considered, the analysis of normative documents of the EU law and in this sphere is carried out. It is concluded that the existence of a sufficiently extensive system of protection of migrants’ rights in the EU and determining their status does not guarantee a solution to the problems of such persons. Overcoming migration crises is a matter of joint efforts of the entire international community. Solving the problems of migrants must depend on the coordination of the political will of states.
Castles, S.; & Miller, M. J. (2011) Migracje we współczesnym świecie. Warszawa : Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Chetail, V. (2019) International Migration Law. Oxford University Press.
Statistika mezhdunarodnoj migracii. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo dlya stran Vostochnoj Evropy i Centralnoj Azii. Zheneva (2011) Retrieved from The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE): https://bit.ly/3N5tMzw.
Borawska-Kędzierska, E.; Strąk, K. (2009) Przestrzeń Wolności, Bezpieczeństwa i Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej: polityka wizowa, azylowa i imigracyjna. Warszawa : Inst. Wydaw. EuroPrawo. (System Prawa Unii Europejskiej. Podręcznik ; t. 11, cz. 2).
Malynovska, O. A. (2014) Mihratsiina polityka Yevropeiskoho soiuzu: vyklyky ta uroky dlia Ukrainy. Kyiv : NISD.
Brzozowski, J. (2011) Polityka migracyjna Unii Europejskiej: stan obecny i perspektywy. Studia Europejskie, 3, 51–73.
Joppke, C. (1999) Immigration and the nation-state: the United States, Germany, and Great Britain, Oxford.
Dogovor mezhdu Korolevstvom Niderlandov, Korolevstvom Belgii, Federativnoj Respublikoj Germaniya, Francuzskoj Respublikoj i Velikim Gercogstvom Lyuksemburg o poetapnoj otmene kontrolya na obshih granicah (Shengenskoe soglashenie) ot 14.06.1985 g. (N.d.) Retrieved from Verhovna Rada Ukrayini. Zakonodavstvo Ukrayini: https://bit.ly/3FwscUx.
Opeskin, B.; Perruchoud, R.; Redpath-Cross, J. et al. (2012) Foundations of International Migration Law. Cambridge University Press.
Yevropeiska uhoda pro skasuvannia viz dlia bizhentsiv (ETS N 31) vid 20.04.1959 r. № ETS 31. (N.d.) Retrieved from Verkhovna Rada Ukrainy. Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy: https://bit.ly/3ypEJaJ.
Dohovir pro zasnuvannia Yevropeiskoi Spilnoty (Dohovir pro zasnuvannia Yevropeiskoho ekonomichnoho spivtovarystva) vid 25.03.1957 r. (konsolidovana versiia stanom na 01.01.2005 r.). Retrieved from Verkhovna Rada Ukrainy. Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy: https://bit.ly/3P7QOY8.
EU Immigration and Asylum Law: Commentary on EU Regulations and Directives. (2010) Kay Hailbronner. Hart Publishing.
Dohovir pro Yevropeiskyi Soiuz vid 07.02.1992 r. (N.d.) Retrieved from Verkhovna Rada Ukrainy. Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy: https://bit.ly/3P2crJk.
Tampere. Kick-start to the EUs policy for justice and home affairs European Commission. (N.d.) Retrieved from European Commission: https://bit.ly/395splm.
Fohel, Kh. Ye. (2017) Periodyzatsiia immihratsiinoi polityky Yevropeiskoho Soiuzu: vid vytokiv do suchasnosti. Hrani, 20 (2 (142), 32–42.
The Hague Programme: strengthening freedom, security and justice in the European Union (2005/C 53/01). (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3vXO1Jw.
A Common Agenda for Integration Framework for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals in the European Union. Communication from the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of the Regions. COM (2005) 389 final, 01.09.2005. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3ypF0dL.
Melnychuk, O. I. (2016) Mizhnarodno-pravovi aspekty mihratsiinoi kryzy. Aktualni problemy pravoznavstva, 1, 62–67.
Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3smNtuu.
Dohovir stosovno realizatsii Shenhenskoi uhody mizh Uriadamy derzhav Ekonomichnoho Soiuzu Beniliuks, Federatyvnoiu Respublikoiu Nimechchyna ta Frantsuzkoiu Respublikoiu vid 14 chervnia 1985 roku shchodo poetapnoho skasuvannia prykordonnoho kontroliu na zahalnykh kordonakh z 19 chervnia 1990 roku, vkliuchaiuchy zaiavy pro peresliduvannia zlochyntsiv vidpovidno do statti 41 p. 9 Uhody vid 19.06.1990 r. (N.d.) Retrieved from Verkhovna Rada Ukrainy. Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy: https://bit.ly/37uq6rR.
Konventsiia, shcho vyznachaie derzhavu, yaka vidpovidaie za rozghliad zaiav pro nadannia prytulku, shcho podani v odnii z derzhav-chleniv Yevropeiskykh Spivtovarystv (Dublinska konventsiia) vid 15.06.1990 r. (N.d.) Verkhovna Rada Ukrainy. Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy: https://bit.ly/3M3Bx90.
Council Regulation (EC) No. 343/2003 of 18 February 2003 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national). (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3P6ApDj.
Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the establishment of «Eurodac» for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person and on requests for the comparison with Eurodac data by Member States law enforcement authorities and Europol for law enforcement purposes, and amending Regulation (EU) No 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3907u3f.
Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on minimum standards for giving temporary protection in the event of a mass influx of displaced persons and on measures promoting a balance of efforts between Member States in receiving such persons and bearing the consequences thereof. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3LTtv2h.
Council Directive 2003/9/EC of 27 January 2003 laying down minimum standards for the reception of asylum seekers. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3M0jLDs.
Council Directive 2005/85/EC of 1 December 2005 on minimum standards on procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing refugee status. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3Pbg3Jh.
Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted. (N.d.) Retrieved from EUR-Lex: https://bit.ly/3yGtUS7.