Peculiarities of Civil Law Status of Customs Intermediary under the Legislation of Ukraine and the EU
The article explores the features of civil law regulation of customs mediation under the legislation of Ukraine and the EU. The author identifies the characteristics that distinguish customs mediation from similar institutions in other areas of management. The author substantiates the position that the legal relationship established between customs authorities and participants of foreign economic activity with the participation of a third party is a type of economic binding legal relationship, i.e. the legal relationship for the provision of intermediary services. Within the framework of customs legal relations, contracts of a civil law nature are considered as a specific way of the state's influence on this sphere of public relations. With the participation of customs intermediaries, certain economic and legal relations are established between customs authorities and participants in foreign economic activity. The content of customs intermediary activities should be determined through the provision of services mediated by civil law agreements, representing the interests of foreign economic activity in relations with customs authorities, the provision of customs and related services, the implementation of legally significant actions aimed at customs procedures. The analysis of EU legislation in the study area led the author to conclude that at the EU level not only general qualification requirements for customs intermediaries are set, but also principles, values and rules of conduct that encourage customs intermediaries to achieve high standards of professional ethics and proper implementation their responsibilities. Given the specifics of customs mediation in the EU, the author concludes that at EU level it is impossible to unify the standards of customs services, so to date access to the profession of customs agent in each entity, the Member State is subject to national jurisdiction with its requirements for candidates to the level of their skills and knowledge. The author emphasizes that at the national level it is advisable to integrate certain elements of the legal regulation of customs brokerage to ensure competitiveness, provide quality services and overcome gaps in legislation.
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