Problems of Defining the Category «Countering Crime» in Modern Criminology
The article is devoted to the analysis of the criminological concept of «countering crime». The difficulties of unification of such a concept in both Ukrainian and foreign criminology are pointed out. It is noted that the current situation regarding the unification of the concept of «countering crime», complicates the scientific dialogue about development of effective counteraction mechanisms of crime. In order to establish the main criteria this can help in clarifying the essence of the term of «countering crime», a review of the main scientific views on the concept of countering crime in the works of both Ukrainian and foreign authors, as well as scientists who studied issues of countering crime and related phenomena. It is established that different authors take different approaches in determining the scope of the concept of «countering crime». The main approaches can be divided into 2 groups. According to the first approach, scientists believe the scope of the concept of «countering crime» includes preventive measures, which are aimed at preventing criminal acts. According to the second approach, the authors propose the concept of «countering crime» perceived as a set of measures reactions to crimes, including those, which were stopped at the stage of preparation or attempt. After analyzing the arguments, we came to the conclusion: the most logical approach is inclusion in the scope of the concept of «countering crime» both preventive measures (in terms used, for example — «crime prevention», «elimination of determinants of crime» etc.) and termination measures of started crimes, application of measures to respond to crime («repressive influence by the state power», «criminal-legal measures of reaction» and some others). Based on the obtained conclusion we have proposed our own definition of «countering crime». It is suggested to determine a «countering crime» as a system of measures taken by authorized entities, which are aimed at eliminating determinants individual types of crime and crime in general and implementation of an effective response to already committed criminal offenses any types of crime.
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