Reforming the Institutional System of the European Union under the Lisbon Treaty
The article examines the process of reforming the institutional system of the European Union from the creation of the first Communities to the modern European Union. The main constituent acts of the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community have been studied and established. It is stated that in 1965, when the Merger Treaty was signed, the governing bodies of all the Communities were merged into joint institutions: The Commission, the Council, the Assembly and the Court of Justice. This common structure for the three different Communities is considered to be one of the main institutional changes of the European Union. The Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon treaties are considered. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the Lisbon Treaty of 2007, which introduced significant changes to the institutional system of the European Union. The EU Treaty identifies seven main institutions: The European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the Accounting Chamber. It has been established that in the special institutional structure of the European Union, the European Council, which brings together leaders at national and EU level, sets broad EU priorities. Elected Members of the European Parliament represent European citizens in the European Parliament. The interests of the EU as a whole are defended by the European Commission, which is an executive body. The members of the European Commission are appointed by national governments. Governments defend their country’s national interests in the Council of the European Union. It is determined that within the European Union the bicameral legislature is the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament. The EU Court of Justice, which is the EU’s highest court, regulates differences between EU Member States and the EU itself, between institutions and upholds the rule of European law. It is established that the process of reforming the EU institutional system will continue.
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